Vivien Noakes 『Edward Lear: The Life of a Wanderer』 (Revised Edition)

「'Perhaps after all, the less one stays in places one likes the better - & so one escapes some pain,' he wrote in his diary. 'Therefore, wander.'」
(Vivien Noakes 『Edward Lear』 より)

Vivien Noakes 
『Edward Lear:
The Life of a Wanderer』 
Revised Edition

Sutton Publishing, Gloucestershire, 2004
viii, 312pp, 16pp of plates, 24x15.2cm, hardcover, dust jacket

Originally published in the United Kingdom in 1968 by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd


noakes - edward lear 01



PART ONE: MR LEAR 1812-1848
2. Ornithologist
3. The Knowsley Menagerie
4. Italy
5. A Queen and a Revolution
6. The Mediterranean
7. Franklin Lushington

8. Pre-Raphaelite
9. The Morbids
10. Corfu
11. The Holy Land
12. Rome
13. Landscape Painter
14. Wanderer
15. A Proposal of Marriage?
16. The Greatest Nonsense
17. Last Travel Book

18. Villa Emily
19. Coast of Coromandel
20. The Cruel Shore
21. Villa Tennyson
22. The End

A Brief Chronological Table of Lear's Travels
Family Trees
Notes to the Text
Notes to Text Illustrations

noakes - edward lear 04



「When he was about seven, the emotional strain began to show itself in sudden changes of mood with bouts of acute depression, which he called 'the Morbids'. Significantly the first of these came after a rare happy evening with his father. 'The earliest of all the morbidnesses I can recollect must have been somewhere about 1819 - when my Father took me to a field near Highgate, where was a rural performance of gymnastric clowns &C. - & a band. The music was good, - at least it attracted me. - & the sunset & twilight I remember as if yesterday. And I can recollect crying half the night after all the small gaiety broke up - & also suffering for days at the memory of the past scene.' He was a sad, lonely little boy grasping happiness when it came and savouring every bit of it - and broken-hearted when it had slipped beyond his grasp again.
 But even earlier, when he was only five or six, had come the first attack of epilepsy - 'the Demon', as he called it.」
「The illness affected his whole life profoundly. He was fearful that one day an attack might leave him paralysed, or that the repeated assaults would destroy his mind: though he also hoped, until well into middle age, that the disease might loosen its grip as he grew older. It was a constant threat, for sometimes he had several attacks a day. He had warning before they came on - the aura epileptica - so that he was able to get out of the way, and apparently nobody apart from his family ever realised that he was an epileptic. But this perpetual secrecy forced him into isolation.」

(七歳頃から、情緒的ストレスは急性うつ病の症状を伴う突発的な気分の変化(リア自身はそれを「ビョーキ(the Morbids)」と呼んだ)として現れるようになった。最初に現れたのは父親と珍しく楽しい晩を過した後のことで、「1819年頃、父がハイゲイトの近くの野原に連れて行ってくれて、そこで道化師の曲芸とか楽隊とかが地方興行をしていた。音楽に心を魅かれた。夕日と黄昏を昨日のことのように覚えている。お祭り騒ぎが済んでしまうと、夜中まで泣いていた。数日間は過ぎてしまった情景を思い出して切なさに駆られた」。リアはたまに訪れる幸福に飛びついて味わい尽そうとし、それが通り過ぎてしまうと悲嘆に暮れる寂しく孤独な子どもだった。
しかしそれよりも早く、五歳か六歳で、リアは最初の癲癇の発作(リア自身はそれを「アクマ(the Demon)」と呼んだ)に襲われた。


「Indeed, as a young man he seems hardly to have considered marriage as a real possibility, partly because he knew that there would be too much risk of unhappiness. He would have to break the secret of his epilepsy, and he might pass the disease on to his children and see his own horror beginning again in another child. Nor could he be sure that his wife would go on loving him - his mother had stopped loving him once and he knew that he could not go through that kind of despair and hurt again. But the alternative - a solitary life of loneliness - held no appreal. 'I shall - if pleases God to give me health - most probably be a successful Landscape=painter - & have a number of friends given to but few in this world: - on the other hand, I am but too certain of living alone throughout life - a fate for which my sensitive mind ill enough prepares me.'」


「A Queen and a Revolution」より:

「For, despite their incongruity, there is in Lear's characters an honesty that is lacking in the improving literature of the time. Here are grown-ups doing things that grown-ups should never do. They rush and they fall, they eat and drink vastly, wear huge bonnets and wigs, play on crude instrumetns and dance hornpipes and jigs. They are immense and unmannerly, immoderate and strange, unabashed by their eccentricities and excess. ( . . . ) They do not deceive, but share with the children both the folly of their actions and the reality of the human characteristics they display - carelessness, generosity, stupidity, greed. Above all, they are their own masters, ignoring the blandishments of 'They', that constrained, critical mass whom Walter de la Mare called 'perhaps [Lear's] greatest triumph' with 'their unanimity, their cogency, their scorn'.
 Lear was not, of course, the only children's writer of the time who offered his readers an escape from a world of anxiety into one of safety and imagination - nor were all children subjected to these fears - but he was the most influential. In an age when they were too often loaded with shame, he sought to free them. By facing both the good and the bad without criticism, he gave them an opportunity of coming affectionately to terms with themselves and other people, encouraging a good-natured acceptance of oddities and blindness to obvious faults that Erasmus describes as 'the sort of absurdity which is the binding force in society and brings happiness to life'.」



「As it was, Lear probably only partly realised his homosexuality, though in the deeper layers of his mind there was conflict as he fought to suppress it, a conflict that contributed to his constant state of restlessness and depression. He was not a philandering homosexual, as some writers have believed him to be. His search was not for physical love but for someone who would want him as a person in the way that his parents had not wanted him as a child. Through his sensibility and charm he was sought after as a friend, and he loved to be with children because they liked him and showed it. But what he was searching for, and never found, was real spiritual involvement with another person.
 Beyond even this was the terrible unhappiness of forty years, the constant epileptic attacks that still came as often as twenty times a month, marked in his diary by sad little crosses and that he now had to accept would never go - and the bewildering memories of his childhood. Usually he could tuck these away into an undisturbed corner of his mind where they were gradually covered by comforting layers of dust, but when a new unhappiness found its way into that corner the dust was suddenly shaken off and the monster of memory was there.
 Today we would say that Lear was on the verge of a nervous breakdown. What he knew was that he was so unhappy he could do nothing. For hours he walked up and down his room with tears streaming down his face. If he tried to sleep, he just lay looking up at the ceiling. Nobody called, nothing happened, and day after day it rained.」


「Landscape Painter」より:

「'Perhaps after all, the less one stays in places one likes the better - & so one escapes some pain,' he wrote in his diary. 'Therefore, wander.'」


「'The Elements,' he wrote in his diary, 'trees, clouds, &c - silence . . . seems to have far more part with me or I with them, than mankind.'」


「The End」より:

「Though Lear had been dependent on his friends in many ways, his whole life had been a lonely struggle against difficulties that he could share with nobody.」


noakes - edward lear 02

noakes - edward lear 03

不幸な鳥たち(unfortunate birds)に餌やりをするリア。


Becks-Malorny 『James Ensor 1860-1949: Masks, Death, and the Sea』
M. Watkinson & P. Anderson 『Crazy Diamond: Syd Barrett & the Dawn of Pink Floyd』
Norton N. Cohen 『Lewis Carroll: A Biography』


Edward Lear 『Selected Letters』 Edited by Vivien Noakes

「In the morning I feed unfortunate birds.」
(Edward Lear)

Edward Lear 
『Selected Letters』 
Edited by
Vivien Noakes

Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press, 1988
xlii, 325pp, 22.2x14.4cm, hardcover, dust jacket
Printed in Great Britain


edward lear - selected letters 01

edward lear - selected letters 02


List of Letters
Biographical Register



edward lear - letters 05


「To Emily Tennyson
Oatlands Parcotel.|Waltonontems.|Surry.|Jany. 14|1861.」
「My evenings - if no friend be here - are dimmydullydillyduffy. - Partly I translate Thousididdles - & so by very slow degrees attain to Greek nollidge.
 Partly I play on the hinstrument. - partly I drink tea - & rush about the room angrily. - In the morning I feed unfortunate birds.」


edward lear - letters 03

edward lear - letters 04

「To Nora Decie
April 3. 1864. Corfu.」
「I am going to start tomorrow, having sent my luggage away, & intending myself to go by sea, as it is cheaper than going by the steamer. I therefore join Captn. Deverills 3 geese, & we are going to swim all the way round Cape Matapan & so to the Piræus as fast as we can.」


edward lear - letters 06

「To Chichester Fortescue and Lady Waldegrave
Villa Emily. San Remo.|Xmas Day. 1871」
「My elth is tolerable, but I am 60 next May, & feel growing old. Going up & down stairs worries me, & I think of marrying some domestic henbird & then of building a nest in one of my olive trees, whence I should only descend at remote intervals during the rest of my life.」


edward lear - letters 00

「To James Fields
Villa Emily. Sanremo. Italy.|15. October 1879.」
「I suppose I shall have to flee away & be heard of no more.」
「So look out for me & my cat some fine day - by a Boston Steamer, on my way to San Francisco.」


edward lear - letters 08

edward lear - letters 09

edward lear - selected letters 10

「エドワード・リア 七十三歳半
その愛猫フォス 十六歳」

edward lear - letters 11

     *     *     *     

edward lear - selected letters 13

「To the Hon. Mrs James Stuart-Wortley
Villa Tennyson. Sanremo.|26. Feby. 1882」
「(...) as they were done in the Moon, to which I lately went one night, returning next morning on a Moonbean. (...) I will add some few notes concerning the 2 subjects which I got with great rapidity during my visit, nothing being easier in that wonderful country than to travel thousands of miles in a minute. And these journeys are all done by means of Moonbeans, which, far from being mere portions of light, are in reality living creatures, endowed with considerable sogassity, & a long nose like the trunk of a Nelliphant, though this is quite imperceptible to the naked eye. You have only to whisper to the Moonbean what you wish to see, & you are there in a moment, & its nose or trunk being placed round your body, you cannot by any possibility fall.
 The first view is of the Jizzdoddle rocks, with 2 of the many remarkable planets which surround the moon rising or riz in the distance; these orangecoloured & peagreen orbs leaving a profound impression of sensational surprise on the mind of the speckletator who first beholds them. The second view represents the Rumbytumby ravine, with the crimson planted Buzz and its 5 Satanites on the horizon. In the foreground on the left is a Blompopp tree, so called from the Blompop, a gigantic and gorgeous bird which builds on its summit. To the left are the tall Vizzikilly trees, the most common vegetation of the Lunar hummysphere.」


Robert McCracken Peck 『The Natural History of Edward Lear (1812-1888)』

Robert McCracken Peck 
『The Natural History of
Edward Lear (1812-1888)』

with a foreword by David Attenborough

ACC Art Books Ltd., 2016
223p, 25.4x17.7cm, hardcover, dust jacket
Printed in China

First published in 2016 by David R. Godine, Publisher, Inc.


peck - the national history of edward lear 01

peck - the national history of edward lear 02



Foreword by David Attenborough

An Unusual Life - Lear's Childhood and Early Interest in Natural History
Opening the Cages - Lear and the London Zoo
Edward T. Bennett
An Unfinished Publication - Lear's Lost Portfolio
The Zoology of Capt. Beechey's Voyage
Lear and Lithography - Applying Technology to Art
Lear's Parrot Monograph
Bird Depictions Dead and Alive - Ornithological Illustration Before Lear
Barraband's Parrots
Among the Lions - Lear's Place in the Natural History Community of His Day
 John Gould
 Jardine and Selby
 Thomas Bell
A Curious Beast
Lear Down Under - An Unusual Interest in Australia
The Earl and the Pussycat - Lear's Association with Lord Derby
John James Audubon and a Hoped-for Venture to America
Gleanings from Knowsley Hall
An Artist in Motion - Lear as a Traveler
 Instructor to the Queen
 Traveling Father Afield
 Exotic Dress
 The Dangers of Travel
Spoofing Science from the Sidelines - Lear's Nonsense Botany
Lear's Botany - The Serious Side
Conclusion (PART I)

Timeless Stories for All Ages - Lear's Impact on Children's Books
 Beatrix Potter
 Edward Gorey
 Jan Brett
The Legacy Continues - Two Contemporary Painters of Natural History
 Working in the Lear Tradition
 William Cooper
 Elizabeth Butterworth
Taking Lear in a New Direction
 Walton Ford
 James Prosek
Poetical Topographers - Three Contemporary Travel and Landscape Painters Working in the Lear Tradition
 Tony Foster
 John Doyle
 Philip Hughes
A Political Cartoonist Influenced by Lear
 Nicholas Garland
Conclusion (PART II)

Notes for Part I
Notes for Part II
List of Illustrations
Selected Bibliography

peck - the national history of edward lear 03


「PART I」より:

「Aside from a short stint at boarding school at the age of eleven, the young Lear received most of his education from Ann and another sister, Sarah ( . . . ), with whom he was also extremely close. This informal instruction suited Lear's non-conformist personality and, if anything, may have helped to stimulate his creative abilities and inherent curiosity. "I am almost thanking God that I was never educated [at a school]," he wrote when he was forty-seven, "for it seems to me that 999 of those who are so, expensively & laboriously, have lost all before they arrive at my age - & remain like Swift's Stulbruggs - cut & dry for life, making no use of their earlier-gained treasures: - whereas, I seem to be on the threshold of knowledge . . ." It was a threashold he continued to move and expand throughout his long and productive life.」


「As so often happens with ambitious projects attempted by the very young, when Lear embarked on his great parrot monograph, his inexperience may have been the secret of his success. His lack of academic training, his unfamiliarity with publishing, and his relative naiveté in the field of scientific illustration had the serendipitous effect of freeing him from the confines of existing traditions. Since his previous experience with commissioned work had been to draw particular tumors and deformities for medical purposes, he naturally applied the same methodology to birds, painting every that he encountered not as a generic "type," as was the norm, but as an individual. ( . . . ) If Lear had been formally trained, or had grown up surrounded by the bird books of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, his unique, uninhibited approach to drawing birds and other natural history subjects might have been stifled.」


peck - the national history of edward lear 04




Wikimedia Commons
Illustrations of the Family of Psittacidae, or Parrots (1832) by Edward Lear

Digital Library for the Decorative Arts and Material Culture
Lear, Edward, 1812-1888
Illustrations of the family of Psittacidae, or parrots: the greater part of them species hitherto unfigured, containing forty-two lithographic plates, drawn from life, and on stone
London, England: E. Lear, 1832

Jenny Uglow 『Mr Lear: A Life of Art and Nonsense』

「In one drawing, in a letter to Evelyn Baring, written in a week of dreadful weather, Lear's own monogram became a person, coiled up in himself, 'Generally speaking', he wrote, 'I have been wrapped up like this all the week in a wholly abject and incapable state.'」
(悪天候の一週間の後でリアが出した手紙では、リアのモノグラム(Edward の E を Lear の L が囲んでいる)が、渦巻状にくるっと巻かれた人物に変形している。「ここのところずっとこんなふうに絶望に取り巻かれて手も足も出ない状態です」。)
(Jenny Uglow 『Mr Lear: A Life of Art and Nonsense』 より)

Jenny Uglow 
『Mr Lear:
A Life of Art
and Nonsense』

Faber & Faber, London, 2017
ix, 598pp, 24x16cm, hardcover


uglow - mr lear 01


uglow - mr lear 02



I. Fledging
1. One Foot off the Ground
2. With the Girls
3. 'O Sussex!'

4. To the Zoo
5. Knowsley
6. Tribes and Species
7. Make 'Em Laugh
8. Mountains

9. 'Rome Is Rome'
10. Happy as a Hedgehog
11. Third Person
12. Excutions
13. Derry down Derry: *Nonsense*, 1846
14. 'Something Is About to Happen'
15. 'Calmly, into the Dice-box'
16. 'All that Amber'

17. The Brotherhood
18. Meeting the Poet
19. An Owl in the Desert
20. Half a Life: Corfu and Athos
21. Bible Lands
22. A Was an Ass
23. Home Again, Rome Again
24. No More

25. 'Overconstrained to Folly': *Nonsense*, 1861
26. Mr Lear the Artist
27. 'From Island unto Island'
28. 'What a Charming Life an Artist's Is!'
29. 'The "Marriage" Phantasy'
30. 'Gradually Extinguified'

31. Sail Away: Cannes 1868-1869
32. 'Three Groans for Corsica!'
33. *Degli Inglesi*
34. *Nonsense Songs*, and *More Nonsense*
35. Restless in San Remo
36. India
37. Families
38. *Laughable Lyrics*

39. Shocks
40. The Villa Tennyson
41. 'As Great a Fool as Ever I Was'
42. *Pax Vobiscum*

List of Illustrations
Select Bibliography

uglow - mr lear 03


「One Foot off the Ground」より:

「Lear's epilepsy, and the secrecy with which he guarded it, set him apart: it was the root of the profound loneliness he felt all his life.
Even as a small boy he was on guard, fearful of his own body. He lived with apprehension, hoping he would grow out of the fits, or could reduce them by walking, exercise, diet. He was vulnerable too because he was so shortsighted - much of his childhood was, literally, a blur.」


「With the Girls」より:

「Lear's life was shaped less by school and childhood friendds than by his sisters.」


「Make 'Em Laugh」より:

「( . . . ) in Lear, folly and melancholy often go together.」


「Third Person」より:

「The public Mr Lear was a young artist, determined to learn more, taking on pupils and displaying his work to potential patrons and buyers. ( . . . ) The private Lear of his letters was a man lucky in his friends, happy in his travels but dreaming of domestic bliss ( . . . ). Beneath this ran the admission that he was in essence a man who would live his life alone, and, perhaps, lonely.
There was, however, a third Mr Lear, displayed to a wider circle to amuse and entertain: the outsider, the peripatetic artist, the court jester.」


「'Something Is about to Happen'」より:

「( . . . ) at the end of his life he declared himself 'an outsider and by nature and habit a Liberal' ( . . . )」


「Meeting the Poet」より:

「Although Lear hugely enjoyed life, and vividly described this enjoyment, he really did believe, as he once told Emily Tennyson, 'that I enjoy hardly any one thing on earth while it is present: - always looking back, or frettingly peering into the dim beyond'.」


「An Owl in the Desert」より:

「( . . . ) when he was low Lear always felt closer to the animals than to the smart people around him.」


「'Gradually Extinguified'」より:

「Lear read Darwin happily on the Nile in 1867, but the ideas could be disturbing.」


「'I have come to the conclusion', he told Emily Tennyson, trying to joke, 'that nobody ought to marry at all, & that no more people ought ever to be born, - & so we should be gradually extinguified, & the world would be left to triumphant chimpanzees, gorillas, cockroaches & crocodiles.'」


「Sail Away: Cannes 1868-1869」より:

「All his life Lear had hidden essential aspects of his own nature: his epilepsy, of which he was ashamed; his troubled sexuality; his feeling of being an outsider. He had turned these anxieties outwards on to his perception of his body, convinced of his ugliness, exaggerating his bulk and spindly legs, bushy beard and bulbous nose.」


uglow - mr lear 04


uglow - mr lear 05


uglow - mr lear 06


uglow - mr lear 09


「'( . . . ) I think of marrying some domestic henbird & then of building a nest in one of my many olive trees, whence I should only descend at remote intervals during the rest of my life.'」


uglow - mr lear 07

uglow - mr lear 08


uglow - mr lear 10

リアの戯画。「The Scroobious Pip」。

uglow - mr lear 11


uglow - mr lear 11


エドワード・リア/エドワード・ゴーリー 『ジャンブリーズ』
エドワード・リア/エドワード・ゴーリー 『輝ける鼻のどんぐ』

"The Complete Nonsense of Edward Lear" (ed. by Holbrook Jackson)

"The Complete Nonsense of Edward Lear"
Edited and introduced by Holbrook Jackson

Faber and Faber Liminted, London, Boston, 1947, 16th impression 1984
xxix, 288pp, 23x16cm, hardcover, dust jacket


complete nonsense 1


complete nonsense 2


complete nonsense 3


complete nonsense 4







complete nonsense 5

「A Book of Nonsense」(1846年)より。

「A Book of Nonsense」はリメリック limerick (戯詩)と、リア本人による挿絵からなる詩集。

complete nonsense 6

「Calico Pie」(キャラコのパイ)はノンセンス抒情詩です。エリザベス・シューエル(『ノンセンスの領域』)は、この詩にみられるようなセンチメンタリズムゆえにリアは純粋なノンセンス詩人たりえない、と褒めています(シューエルがいう「純粋なノンセンス」とは、論理と数字に支配された人間不在の世界のことです)。



※シラバブ 《牛乳にぶどう酒などを混ぜ,砂糖と香料を加えて泡立てた飲料》 (Weblio辞書)
ウィルビー・ワット Willeby-wat はよくわかりませんが、挿絵に描かれている人面魚の名前だとおもいます。

complete nonsense 7


Foss couchant 香箱を作っているフォス。
Foss, a untin. (a-huntin' ?) 狩猟モードのフォス。
Foss rampant よちよち歩きのフォス。
Foss dansant 踊るフォス。

complete nonsense 8

Foss, regardant 注視するフォス。
Foss Pprpr ぷるぷると威嚇するフォス。
Foss, Passant おすましで通り過ぎるフォス。

complete nonsense 9

「Nonsense Alphabets」。

complete nonsense 10

「Nonsense Botany」。
ノンセンス植物学。「Manypeeplia Upsidownia」は「Many people upside down」(たくさんのさかさまのひとたち)を学名(ラテン語)風にしたもの。

complete nonsense 12


complete nonsense 11


これら二つのノンセンス・ソング(Nonsense Songs)は、日本ではむしろエドワード・ゴーリーによる絵本で親しまれているのではないかとおもいます。
リアのノンセンス・ソングで最も有名なのは「The Owl and the Pussy-cat」(「フクロウと仔猫」)です。

complete nonsense 14

ノンセンスものがたり(Nonsense Stories)。
「The Story of the Four Little Children Who Went Round the World」(世界中をへめぐった四人の子供たちの物語)より。


INTRODUCTION (Holbrook Jackson)





Away with the Fairies


分野: パタフィジック。

趣味: 図書館ごっこ。

好物: 鉱物。スカシカシパン。タコノマクラ。

将来の夢: 石ころ。

尊敬する人物: ジョゼフ・メリック、ジョゼフ・コーネル、尾形亀之助、森田童子。


netakiri nekotaroの最近読んだ本