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John Dover Wilson - Life in Shakespeare's England (Pelican Books)

John Dover Wilson
"Life in Shakespeare's England"

Pelican Books A143

Penguin Books Ltd, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, 1944, reprinted 1949, 1951
367pp, 8 b&w plates, 18x11.2cm, paperback
(First published by the Cambridge University Press 1911)



シェイクスピアからの引用と、同時代の散文資料のアンソロジーによって、エリザベス朝時代のイングランドの人々の生活を展望する。ジョン・ドーヴァー・ウィルソン編。


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About This Book:

"Many people who have learned to enjoy Shakespeare - including the thousands who have discovered him through radio - feel they would like to know more about his life and times, and this authoritative book, reprinted again in Penguins, is the answer. It is not a biographical study like Hesketh Pearson's A Life of Shakespeare (Penguin No. 370) but an anthology collected from many contemporary sources so as to illuminate the conditions, the appearance, the habits, pastimes and beliefs of Shakespeare's time. Professor Dover Wilson's method of assembling this panorama of the period is to pin-point the clues provided by scores of passages in the plays and follow them up by relevant supporting evidence from what we nowadays call the 'documentary' writers of the time. Thus we are able to see city and countryside, school and university, court and theatre, as the man of Shakespeare's day saw them with his own eyes. We observe at close quarters his sports, his superstitions, his daily life at home or abroad, his experiences in childhood and age. Actor, sailor, courtier, traveller and beggar relate, in their own words, what living was like in the great days of sixteenth-century England."


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Contents:

Preface

I. ENGLAND AND THE ENGLISH
Richard II, Henry V, etc.
England, the English, birth and rank, snobbery, English women

Part One
SHAKESPEARE'S YOUTH, STRATFORD 1564-86
Born 1564: son of a farmer and shopkeeper of Stratford-on-Avon: probably attends the free grammar school of the town

II. THE COUNTRYSIDE
Midsummer Night's Dream, Introduction to the Taming of the Shrew, As You Like It, Winter's Tale
1. COUNTRY-FOLK
A contry gentleman, a franklin, a farmer, a milkmaid, a shepherd
2. SPORT
Hunting, football, bowling, a cock-fight, a local play
3. FESTIVAL
Christmas, Good Friday, Eater, May Day, Robin Hood, the Lord of Misrule

III. SUPERSTITION
Midsummer Night's Dream, Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Hamlet, King Lear, The Tempest
1. THE NATURE OF SUPERSTITION
2. GHOSTS AND SPIRITS
Exorcism
3. WITCHCRAFT
Witches in Scotland, the witches' cauldron, transformation
4. FAIRY-LAND
5. ASTROLOGY

IV. EDUCATION
Love's Labour's Lost, Merry Wives of Windsor
1. CHILD AND PARENT
Two views of childhood, parents and children
2. THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL
An interesting parallel, the school day, punishment, country schoolmasters
3. THE UNIVERSITY
The universities of England, the life at Oxford, a young gentleman of the university, a mere scholar
4. TRAVEL
The use and abuse of travel, the Italianate Englishman

Part Two
SHAKESPEARE IN LONDON 1586-1608
Goes to London (? on foot) c. 1586: recognized as a rising dramatist 1592: published Venus and Adonis 1593: acts before the Queen at Greenwich 1594

V. LONDON
1 and 2 Henry IV, Much Ado About Nothing, Measure for Measure
1. THE ROAD TO LONDON
The state of the roads, means of communication, inns, highwaymen
2. FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF LONDON
A foreign view, the buildings, the Thames, a waterman, London Bridge, Cheapside, a shopkeeper, Paul's walk, noise and bustle
3. DISORDERS
A busy week for the authorities, duelling and street brawling, constables and watchmen, London at night
4. TEMPTATIONS
A. Drink: its effects, a fearful example, ale-houses, taverns, English sobriety, B. Tobacco: a tobacco seller, royal disapprobation. C. Dicing and Gaming: cheaters, a gaming-house, false dice, card-sharping. D. Debt and Usury: a usurer, the debtors' prison
5. DRESS AND FASHION
Fashion in general, gorgeous attire, a dandy, fashion descends, harbers, fashionable ladies, pride of merchant's wives, lap-dogs
6. THE PLAGUE
The beggar's opportunity, medical treatment, flilght from London

VI. BOOKS AND AUTHORS
Patronage, portrait of a poet, an author's complaint, a pot-poet, a worthy poet, ballads and monsters, troubles of authorship, fashion in books, stationers and booksellers

VII. THE THEATRE
Midsummer Night's Dream, Henry V, Hamlet
1. THEATRICAL CONDITIONS IN 1580
AEsthetic and moral condemnation
2. PLAYHOUSES AND BEAR-GARDENS
The first London theatres, a German at the theatre, structure of a playhouse, playhouses, English and Italian theatres, Paris-garden
3. THE AUDIENCE
General behaviour, a gallant at the playhouse
4. THE ACTOR AND HIS CRAFT
Shakespeare's opinion, character of a player, magnificence of player's dress, the queen's players on tour, a royal licence
5. PURITAN OPPOSITION TO THE THEATRE
Denunciation from Paul's Cross, a sweeping condemnation, attitude of the city authorities, a dramatist's reply, the actors' remonstrance

VIII. THE COURT
Love's Labour's Lost, Much Ado About Nothing, Hamlet, Historical Plays
1. QUEEN ELIZABETH AT GREENWICH
2. THE COURTIER
The ideal, the other side of the picture
3. MASQUES AT COURT
4. THE DEATH OF QUEEN ELIZABETH

Part Three
SHAKESPEARE'S LAST YEARS, STRATFORD 1608-16
Buys New Place and other property at Stratford 1597: leaves London c. 1608: writes his last plays The Winter's Tale and The Tempest: dies 1616

IX. HOUSE AND HOME
Taming of the Shrew, Romeo and Juliet, a Henry IV, Coriolanus, i, iii, iv, v, The Winter's Tale
1. HOUSES AND FURNITURE
2. GARDENS AND ORCHARDS
3. HOUSEKEEPING AND THE TABLE
An English housewife, the table, hospitality, the kitchen, the dairy
4. SLEEP AND HEALTH
The bedroom, the care of the body, the physician, death

X. ROGUES AND VAGABONDS
King Lear, The Winter's Tale
Rogues and the law, a courtesy man, an abraham man, rufflers, hookers, two rogues and a parson, a counterfeit crank

XI. THE SEA
The Merchant of Venice, Antony and Cleopatra, The Tempest
England's naval power, a merchant, the sailor's life, the story of the Revenge, discovery, colonization, travellers' tales

CONCLUSION
AN ELIZABETHAN DAY

Glossary and Notes
Index of Authors



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