『Andrei Tarkovsky: Interviews』 ed. by John Gianvito

「Faith is the only thing that can save man, that's my deepest conviction.」
(Andrei Tarkovsky)


『Andrei Tarkovsky:
Interviews』
Edited by John Gianvito

Conversations with Filmmakers Series, Peter Brunette, General Editor

University Press of Mississippi, 2006
xxxiv, 190pp, 22.7x15cm, paperback



映画作家タルコフスキーの、各国の雑誌等に発表されたインタヴューを集成した本です。英語で発表されたもの以外(露・仏・独・伊語)は原文からの英訳です。
巻頭に表紙と同じ写真が口絵として使われています。本文中に図版はありません。


tarkovsky interviews


Contents:

Introduction (John Gianvito)
Chronology
Filmography

Andrei Tarkovski: I Am for a Poetic Cinema (Patrick Bureau, 1962)
From "Les Lettres Francaises", no. 943 (September 13-19, 1962)
Translated from French by Susana Rossberg and John Gianvito

Encounter with Andrei Tarkovsky (Gideon Bachmann, 1962)
From "Filmkritik", no. 12 (December 1962)
Translated from Germany by Tanya Ott and Saskia Wagner

The Burning (Ekran, 1965)
From "Ekran", 1965, 154-57
Translated from Russian by Jake Mahaffy and Yulia Mahaffy

The Artist in Ancient Russia and in the New USSR (Michel Ciment, Luda Schnitzer, and Jean Schnitzer, 1969)
From "Positif", no. 109 (October 1969): 1-13
Translated from French by Susana Rossberg

Dialogue with Andrei Tarkovsky about Science-Fiction on the Screen (Naum Abramov, 1970)
From "Ekran", 1970-1971, 162-65
Translated from Russian by Jake Mahaffy and Yulia Mahaffy

I Love Dovzhenko (Guenter Netzeband, 1973)
From "Filmwissenschaftliche Beitraege Hochschulefuer Film und Fernsehen der DDR Sektion", no. 14 (1973)
Translated from German by Karin Kolb

The Artist Lives Off His Childhood like a Parasite: An Interview with the Author of The Mirror (Claire Devarrieux, 1978)
From "Le Monde", 20 January 1978, 18.
Translated from French by Susana Rossberg

Interview with Andrei Tarkovsky (Tonino Guerra, 1978)
From "Telerama", no. 1462 (January 21-27, 1978)
Translated from French by Deborah Theodore

Stalker, Smuggler of Happiness (Tonino Guerra, 1979)
From "Telerama", no. 1535 (June 13, 1979)
Translated from French by Deborah Theodore

Interview with Andrei Tarkovsky (on Stalker) (Aldo Tassone, 1981)
From "Positif", no. 247 (October 1981), Interview took place in Rome in July, 1980
Translated from French by Vasiliki Katsarou

Against Interpretation: An Interview with Andrei Tarkovsky (Ian Christie, 1981)
From "Framework", no. 14 (1981)

Tarkovsky's Translations (Philip Strick, 1981)
From "Sight and Sound" 50, no. 3 (Summer 1981): 152-53

Tarkovsky in Italy (Tony Mitchell, 1983)
From "Sight and Sound" 52, no. 1 (Winter 1982/1983)

Nostalgia's Black Tone (Herve Guibert, 1983)
From "Le Monde", 12 May 1983, 13
Translated from French by John Gianvito

Between Two Worlds (J. Hoberman and Gideon Bachmann, 1983)
From "American Film", November 1983, 14, 75-79

My Cinema in a Time of Television (Velia Iacovino, 1983)
From "MassMedia" no. 5 (November-December 1983)
Translated from Italian by Ken Shulman

An Enemy of Symbolism (Irena Brezna, 1984)
From "Tip", March 1984
Translated from German by Zsuzsanna Pal

The Twentieth Century and the Artist (V. Ishimov and R. Shejko, 1984)
From "Iskusstvo Kino", no. 4 (1989): 88-106
Translated from Russian by Tim harate

Red Tape (Angus MacKinnon, 1984)
From "Time Out" (London), 9-15 August 1984, 20-22

Portrait of a Filmmaker as a Monk-Poet (Laurence Cosse 1986)
From a broadcast on "France-Culture", January 7, 1986
Translated from French by Susana Rossberg

A Glimmer at the Bottom of the Well? (Thomas Johnson, 1986)
From "Nouvelles Cles", October 21, 2003, from a previously unpublished interview conducted on April 28, 1986
Translated from French by Deborah Theodore

Faith Is the Only Thing That Can Save Man (Charles H. de Brantes, 1986)
From "France Catholique", no. 2060 (June 20, 1986)
Translated from French by John Gianvito

Index




◆本書より◆


「The Burning」(Ekran, 1965)より:

「Roublev is a genius. In other words, he's person seeing the world with a painful keenness, reacting with utmost sensitivity to everything he encounters, to things that other people, after seeing so much and getting used to so much, pass by indifferently, not noticing. And also, because an artist is always the conscience of society.」

(ルブリョフは天才だ。言い換えれば、彼は世界を痛ましいほどの鋭敏さをもって眺め、他の人々だったら高をくくってやり過ごしてしまうような場合にも、出くわすものすべてに最大限の感度で反応する人物だ。それというのも、芸術家はいつの時代でも社会の良心だからだ。)


「The Artist Lives Off His Childhood like a Parasite: An Interview with the Author of The Mirror」(Claire Devarrieux, 1978)より:

「A city man knows nothing about life, he doesn't feel how time passes, he doesn't know its natural flow. The child finds assurance of its future in nature, in nature he educates his will. And the circumstance of being alone allows him to have the capacity to meet other people later on. If one is only a social animal, one survives, consigned to the wills of others.」

(都会人は生活のことをなにも知らない、時間がどんなふうに過ぎていくかを感じとることができない。子どもは自然のなかに将来の保証を見出す、自然のなかで子どもは自らの意志を育てる。ひとりぼっちで過ごす環境が後々他者と出会うための包容力を培うのだ。もし人がたんに社会的動物にすぎないのなら、他者の意志に身をゆだねて生存するだけだ。)


「Against Interpretation: An Interview with Andrei Tarkovsky」(Ian Christie, 1981)より:

「My objective is to create my own world and these images which we create mean nothing more than the images which they are. We have forgotten how to relate emotionally to art: we treat it like editors, searching in it for that which the artist has supposedly hidden. It is actually much simpler than that, otherwise art would have no meaning. You have to be a child - incidentally children understand my pictures very well, and I haven't met a single serious critic who could stand knee-high to those children. We think that art demands special knowledge; we demand some higher meaning from an author, but the work must act directly on our hearts or it has no meaning at all.」

(私の目的は自分自身の世界を創造すること、それ自体であるようなイメージそのものを創造することだ。われわれは芸術と感情的にかかわる方法を見失ってしまって、編集者の立場で、芸術家が芸術作品に隠した意味を探ろうとする。しかしほんとうはもっと単純なことなのだ。子どもの目で見ればよいのだ。子どもはまじめくさった評論家なんかよりよっぽどよく私の映画を理解してくれる。われわれは芸術を理解するには特別な知識が必要だとか、高尚な意味がなければならないとか考えがちだが、しかし作品は直接われわれの心に訴えかけるべきものであって、そうでなければまったく無意味だ。)


「Tarkovsky in Italy」(Tony Mitchell, 1983)より:

「One has to find one's own language through which to express oneself.」

(人は自分自身を表現するための自分独自の言語を見出さなければならない。)


「Portrait of a Filmmaker as a Monk-Poet」(Laurence Cosse 1986)より:

「I repeat, art is a form of prayer. Man lives by his prayer alone.」

(芸術は祈りのひとつの形式であり、人は祈りによってのみ生きる。)

「In fact, this film ("The Mirror") provoked a lot of discussion among Russian Spectators. One day, during a public debate organized after a screening, the discussion dragged on and on. After midnight, a cleaning woman arrived to clean the screening room, wanting to throw us out. She had seen the film earlier on and she didn't understand why we were arguing for such a long time about The Mirror. She told us, "Everything is quite simple, someone fell ill and was afraid of dying. He remembered, all of a sudden, all the pain he'd inflicted on others, and he wanted to atone for it, to ask to be pardoned." This simple woman had understood it all, she had grasped the repentance in the film. (...) The Mirror is (...) a bit the history of Russians, the history of their repentance. While the critics, present in the screening room, had understood absolutely nothing about the film - and the further things go, the less they understand - this woman who hadn't finished grade school, was telling us the truth in her way, this truth inherent in the Russian people's repertoire.」

(『鏡』はさまざまな議論をかもした。ある試写会の後で深夜をすぎても論争が止まなかったので、掃除係の婦人がわれわれを追い出しにかかった。彼女は『鏡』を見ていたが、なぜそんなに言い争うのかわからなかった。「単純明快じゃないの、だれかが病気になって、死ぬのがこわくなる。すると不意に、自分が他人に与えてきた苦痛のことを思い出して、それを償いたい、許しを乞いたいと願う、それだけのことでしょ」。映写室に集った批評家たちが何ひとつ理解していなかったのに反して、この単純な婦人は『鏡』に表現された悔恨の念を完全に理解していた。『鏡』はロシア庶民の悔恨の歴史でもあるからだ。)

「This film ("Stalker") tells of a man in pursuit of a quest, but in a very concrete manner. Being idealistic however, he remains a sort of knight fighting for spiritual values. The hero, the Stalker, moves in the same trajectory as Don Quixote or Prince Myshkin, these characters we call "idealists" in novels. it is precisely because they are idealists that they suffer defeats in real life.」
「In a way. For me, they are characters who express the strength of what is weak. This film speaks about man's dependence upon the strength he himself has created. Strength ends up destroying him, and weakness reveals itself as the one and only force.」
「For me, spirituality has always escaped conscious behavior. "Ridiculous," "displaced" actions are a superior form of spirituality.」
「However, these acts are not done gratuitously but in order to escape from the world as it exists today, as it has been built up, unable to produce a spiritual man. The important thing, the thing that guides all of Stalker's actions, is this force that leads him away from being common, that renders him ridiculous, idiotic, but that reveals to him his own singularity, his spirituality. This unconscious force is his faith.」


(『ストーカー』の主人公は現実的な探求者だが、精神的な価値のためにたたかう騎士のような理想主義者でもある。ドン・キホーテやムイシュキン公爵のように、理想主義者であるがゆえに現実の人生においては敗者たらざるを得ない。私にとって彼らは、弱さがもつ強さを表現する人物だ。人間は自分の強さを過信し、強さによって破滅する。結局のところ、弱さこそが唯一の力なのだ。
意識的な態度には精神性は宿らない。馬鹿げた、理にかなわない行動こそが精神性の高度なかたちだ。
これらの行動は今日存在する世界、精神的な人間を生み出すことが不可能なしくみになっている世界から離脱するためのものなのだ。重要なのは、ふつうの人間でなくなるようにストーカーの行為を導く力であって、いかに愚かしくあろうとも、それが彼自身の固有性、すなわち彼の精神性なのであり、この無意識的な力こそが彼の信仰なのだ。)

「Nostalgia is a complete, total feeling. In other words, one can feel nostalgia while remaining in one's own country, next to those people to whom one is closest. In spite of a happy home, a happy family, man can suffer from nostalgia, simply because he feels his soul is limited, that it cannot propagate itself as he would have wished. Nostalgia is this powerlessness in the face of the world, this pain of being unable to transmit one's spirituality to other people. It's the illness that overcomes the hero of Nostalghia: he suffers from not being able to have friends, or not being able to communicate with them. This character says "we must destroy borders" so the entire world can live its spirituality freely, smoothly. He suffers, more generally, because of his character, unadjusted for modern life. He cannot be happy in the face of the misery of the world. He takes on this collective misery, and wants to live out of step with the world. His problem is strongly related to compassion. His entire suffering stems from there: he cannot incarnate completely this feeling of compassion. He wants to suffer along with the rest of mankind, but he doesn't totally succeed at it.」

(ノスタルジアは全的な感情であり、人は祖国の我家で近しい者と共にいようと、魂が狭く囲い込まれていると感じるときには、ノスタルジアに悩まされるのだ。ノスタルジアとは世界を前にしてのこの無力感、自らの精神性を他者へ伝えることができないこの痛みなのだ。『ノスタルジア』の主人公は友人を作ることができず、コミュニケーション能力の欠如ゆえに苦しみ、世界全体がその精神性を自由に生きることができるようにするために「境界を破壊しなければならない」と言う。彼は現代生活にどうしてもなじめない性格であり、世界に悲惨があるうちは幸福になることができないゆえに、世間の歩調から外れて、この世の悲惨を背負って生きようとする。彼の困りごとは共苦の能力ゆえであり、共苦を完全に血肉化することができないゆえである。)


「Faith Is the Only Thing That Can Save Man」(Charles H. de Brantes, 1986)より:

「When I was very young I asked my father, "Does God exist - yes or no?" And he answered me brilliantly: "For the unbeliever, no, for the believer, yes!" This problem is very important.」
「The most important and the most difficult religious problem is believing...」
「For myself I think if someone is prepared to sacrifice himself, he can be called a believer. Of course, it's strange... Alexander sacrifices himself and at the same time demands that everyone else sacrifice themselves...it's a bit absurd. But what can one do? Without a doubt, in everyone's eyes he's lost; but that which is absolutely clear, is that he is saved.」


(幼いころ私は父にたずねた、「神さまはいるの? いないの?」と。父の答えは聡明なものだった、「神を信じないものにとって神は存在しないが、神を信じるものには、神は存在する」 これはたいへん重要な問題だ。
宗教においてもっとも重要かつもっとも困難な問題は信じるということだ。
私の考えでは、だれか自分自身を犠牲に捧げる用意ができている人がいるとすれば、その人は神を信じる人だといえる。おかしな話だが、『サクリファイス』の登場人物アレクサンデルは自分自身を犠牲に捧げるとともに他のすべての人々も自らを犠牲に捧げるべきだと要求する。まちがいなく、神を信じない他のすべての人々からみれば彼の行為は迷妄でしかないが、彼が救いを得たことはあきらかだ。)






















































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