Robert Burton 『The Anatomy of Melancholy』 (Everyman's University Library)

「and if there be a hell upon earth, it is to be found in a melancholy man's heart.」
(この世に地獄があるとしたら、メランコリーマンの心の中にこそ見出されるであろう。)
(Robert Burton 『The Anatomy of Melancholy』 より)


Robert Burton 
『The Anatomy of Melancholy』

Edited with an Introduction by Holbrook Jackson

Everyman's University Library
J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd, London, 1972, reprinted 1978
xx, 523pp / v, 312pp / v, 547pp
19.6x13cm, hardcover, dust jacket
Jacket drawing by Peter Edwards

First published in Everyman's Library in 1932



本書『憂鬱(メランコリー)の解剖学』はロバート・バートン(1577―1640)による鬱病百科です。鬱病のさまざまな原因(causes)・症状(symptoms)・療法(remedies/cures)が古今の文献の引用を交えつつ論じられています。


burton - anatomy of melancholy 01


カバー裏文:

「The text follows the sixth edition (1651) collated with the fifth (1638). There are notes to the individual parts, and a glossary and index are provided.

*The Anatomy of Melancholy* has been loved and admired by readers as diverse as Johnson, Sterne, Keats and Lamb, but it takes no more than a glance at its pages to see what it was that held their interest and commanded their respect. 'Melancholy' was a term covering a wide variety of human behaviour in the early seventeenth century - anything from intense schizophrenia to the lover's temporary depression - and Burton provides many hundreds of anecdotes illustrating its sway in the life of man.

*The Anatomy of Melancholy* is at once a contribution to learning and a parody of learning. It gives us a very good idea of the state of medical science in the early seventeenth century. It shows us a man whose imagination was stirred by the great voyages of discovery of his time and by the revelation in astronomy that was then taking place. It brings together much of the traditional lore of love and its attendant difficulties; it explores with understanding the strange phenomenon of religious melancholy. It is an important document in the history of ideas, yet also a work of fancy and of the imagination. Above all, it is a monument to the discovery of the individual in the world of Renaissance England.」



内容:

Introduction by Holbrook Jackson
Select Bibliography
Note on the Text

Democritus Junior to His Book
The Argument of the Frontispiece
The Author's Abstract of melancholy
Democritus Junior to the Reader
To the Reader Who Employs His Leisure Ill

The Synopsis of the First Partition
The First Partition:
 Section 1. Of Diseases in General, and of Melancholy; with a Digression of Anatomy
 Section 2. Causes of Melancholy; with a Digression of Spirits
 Section 3. Symptoms of Melancholy
 Section 4. Prognostics of Melancholy
Author's Notes

The Synopsis of the Second Partition
The Second Partition:
 Section 1. Cure of Melancholy in General
 Section 2. Diet, etc., Rectified; with a Digression of Air
 Section 3. A Digression of Remedies against Discontents
 Section 4. Medicinal and Chirurgical Remedies
 Section 5. Particular Cures
Author's Notes

The Synopsis of the Third Partition
The Third Partition:
 Section 1. Love and its Objects
 Section 2. Love-Melancholy
 Section 3. Jealousy
 Section 4. Religious Melancholy
Author's Notes

Glossary
Index



burton - anatomy of melancholy 02



◆本書より◆


「Pt. 1 / Sec. 2 / Mem. 4 / Subs. 3
Causes of Melancholy - Terrors and Affrights」より:

「At Basil many little children in the springtime went to gather flowers in a meadow at the town's where a malefactor hung in gibbets; all gazing at it, one by chance flung a stone, and made it stir, by which accident the children affrighted ran away; one slower than the rest, looking back, and seeing the stirred carcass wag towards her, cried out it came after, and was so terribly affrighted that for many days she could not rest, eat, or sleep, she could not be pacified, but melancholy, died. In the same town another child, beyond the Rhine, saw a grave opened, and upon the sight of a carcass, was so troubled in mind that she could not be comforted, but a little after departed, and was buried by it. A gentlewoman of the same city saw a fat hog cut up; when the entrails were opened, and would not longer abide; a physician in presence told her, as that hog, so was she, full of filthy excrements, and aggravated the matter by some other loathsome instances, insomuch this nice gentlewoman apprehended it so deeply that she fell forthwith a-vomiting, was so mightily distempered in mind and body, that with all his art and persuasions, for some months after, he could not restore her to herself again; she could not forget it, or remove the object out of her sight.」

(バーゼルで子どもたちが野原に花を摘みに行くと犯罪者が絞首刑にされており、皆で見ていたが、そのうちの一人が何気なく石を投げつけると死体が揺れ動き、子どもたちは怖がって逃げ出した。逃げ遅れた一人の女の子が振り返るとこっちに向かって動いたので、死体が追いかけてくると叫んで、ひどく怯えて何日間も不安に苛まれ、食べることも眠ることもできなくなり、鬱病になって死んでしまった。同じ町で別の子どもが掘り起こされた墓の死体を見て心を病み、まもなく亡くなってその墓地に葬られた。同じ街の上流婦人が、肥えた豚が切り裂かれ、はらわたが引き出されるのを見て居たたまれなくなったところ、居合わせた医者が彼女にも豚と同じように穢ないものが詰まっているのだと言い、悪乗りしてさらにおぞましい例をあれこれ挙げたので、上品な婦人にはひどく応えて、その場で嘔吐し、心身不調になり、その医者の数ヶ月に及ぶ手当てにもかかわらず、ついに正常に戻ることはなかった。)

「At Fuscinum in Japan "there was such an earthquake, and darkness on a sudden, that many men were offended with headache, many overwhelmed with sorrow and melancholy, At the same time, and there was such a hideous noise withal, like thunder, and filthy smell, that their hair stared for fear, and their hearts quaked, men and beasts were incredibly terrified. In Sacai, another city, the same earthquake was so terrible unto them, that many were bereft of their senses; and others by that horrible spectacle so much amazed, that they knew not what they did."」

(日本の伏見で大地震があり、多くの人々が頭痛に悩み、悲嘆に暮れ鬱状態に陥った。雷のような騒音と汚臭があふれ、人々も動物も恐慌をきたした。堺でも同じ地震で多くの人々が心神喪失し、あるいは正常な判断力を失った。)


「Pt. 1 / Sec. 4 / Mem. 1
Prognostics of Melancholy」より:

「In such sort doth the torture and extremity of his misery torment him, that he can take no pleasure in his life, but is in a manner enforced to offer violence unto himself, to be freed from his present insufferable pains. So some (saith Fracastorius) "in fury, but most in despair, sorrow, fear, and out of the anguish and vexation of their souls, offer violence to themselves: for their life is unhappy and miserable. They can take no rest in the night, nor sleep, or if they do slumber, fearful dreams astonish them." In the day-time they are affrighted still by some terrible object, and torn in pieces with suspicion, fear, sorrow, discontents, cares, shame, anguish, etc., as so many wild horses, that they cannot be quiet an hour, a minute of time, but even against their wills they are intent, and still thinking of it, they cannot forget it, it grinds their souls day and night, they are perpetually tormented, a burden to themselves, as Job was, they can neither eat, drink, nor sleep. Ps.cvii, 18: "Their soul abhorreth all meat, and the are brought to death's door," "being bound in misery and iron"; they curse their stars with Job, "and day of their birth, and wish for death" for, as Pineda and most interpreters hold, Job was even melancholy to despair, and almost madness itself; they murmur many times against the world, friends, allies, all mankind, even against God Himself in the bitterness of their passion, vivere nolunt, mori nesciunt, live they will not, die they cannot. And in the midst of these squalid, ugly, and such irksome days, they seek at last, finding no comfort, no remedy in this wretched life, to be eased of all by death.」

(ひどい悲惨に苛まれて、生きることに喜びを見出せず、耐え難い苦痛から逃れようと己れ自身に危害を加えるようになる。夜も眠れず、うたた寝すれば悪夢に襲われ、昼は昼で恐ろしいものに脅かされ、疑惑や恐怖や悲嘆や不満や気がかりや恥辱や苦悶で引き裂かれ、心休まる時もなく、魂は磨り減り、ヨブのごとき責め苦に日常生活もままならず、自分の運命を呪い、自分が生まれた日を呪い、世間や人類や神さえも罵倒し、死による安らぎを求めるようになるのだ。)

「I say of our melancholy man, he is the cream of human adversity, the quintessence, and upshot; all other diseases whatsover are but flea-bitings to melancholy in extent: 'tis the pith of them all.」

(メランコリーマン(鬱病人間)こそが人類の逆境の精髄であり、典型であり、究極であって、鬱病に比べれば他の病などどれをとっても蚤に噛まれたようなたわいのないものなのだ。)




Dowland - Melancholy Galliard






こちらもご参照ください:

クリバンスキー/パノフスキー/ザクスル 『土星とメランコリー』 田中英道 監訳














































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