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Norton N. Cohen 『Lewis Carroll: A Biography』

「*Wonderland* is the tale of a quest, a trial, and a test. It is a series of episodes that pits a young person against a bewildering cast of adult characters who behave incomprehensibly, according to arcane conventions. It illustrates how a young, inexperienced person can deal with this inexplicably chaotic world and survive as part of it.」
(Norton N. Cohen 『Lewis Carroll: a Biography』 より)


Norton N. Cohen 
『Lewis Carroll:
A Biography』


Vintage Books, A Division of Random House, Inc., New York, 1996
xxiii, 577pp+2pp, 20.2x13.2cm, paperback
Book design by Peter A. Andersen
Printedin the United States of America

Originally published in hardcover by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, in 1995



ノートン・N・コーエンによるルイス・キャロル伝。膨大な日記や手紙等の資料を駆使したきわめて詳細な伝記であります。
本文中図版(モノクロ)多数。図版はやや粗いです。本書はだいぶまえにアマゾンで購入しておいたのが出てきたのでよんでみました。


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Contents:

List of Illustrations
Preface
Acknowledgments
Introduction
1. Beginnings
2. Cap and Gown
3. The Don, the Dean, and His Daughter
4. The Child
5. The *Alice* Books
6. The Pursuit of Innocents
7. The Fire Within
8. Years of Triumph
9. The Man
10. The Man's Father
11. The Man's Faith
12. Years of Harvest
13. Yellowing Leaves
14. And No Birds Sing
15. Gentle into That Good Night
Appendix
Abbreviated Titles
Notes
Index



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◆本書より◆


「The Child」より:

「Rousseau ( . . . ) exploded the belief that the child is an adult in miniature, that childhood is a condition to be passed through as quickly as possible. ( . . . ) The child, for Rousseau, was a primitive in the grandest sense, unblemished and noble, uncorrupted and pure. He argued against ( . . . ) training the child away from his natural state, and sought to instill respect for these virginal beings as such and yearned to encourage their natural growth; he wanted children to develop with a minimum of interference.」
「Blake later wed the primitive nobility that Rousseau saw in the child to the angelic simplicity inspired by Christ's injunction that those who seek the kingdom of heaven must "become as little children."」
「Charles's view of childhood is Blakean; he too revered the mystic combination of the primitive and the pure, the noble, and the divine.」


(子どもは大人の雛型であり、できるだけすみやかに大人になるべきだという通念を覆したのはルソーであった。最高の意味で自然な、気高く純粋で無疵の存在である子どもをしつけてダメにしてしまうことにルソーは抗議し、子どもがその本性を損なわれずに生長するよう望んだ。ブレイクはルソーが子どもの内にみた生まれつきの高貴さを「幼な子のようにならなければ天国にはいることはできない」というキリストのことばにみられる天使的な単純さと結びつけた。ルイス・キャロルもブレイク同様、子どもにおける自然・純粋・高貴・神性の霊的結合を尊重した。)

「The world Charles entered as an adult was full of confused and battling forces, torn and driven in conflicting and bewildering directions, defined by rational sciences that clashed with intuitive faith. Confronting greed and chaos, Charles chose not so much to join in the struggle to sort matters out as to retreat to the past, to the inspirational words of visionaries like Blake. He clung to the simple affections of childhood, refusing to trade them in for the duplicities of Victorian adulthood, while he struggled against what, in his poem "Solitude," he terms the "slow result of Life's decay."」

(キャロルが体験した大人の社会は信仰と科学が敵対する貪欲と混沌の世界であり、彼はそのような社会に参加するよりは過去にひきこもる方を選んだ。子どもの素朴な愛情をヴィクトリア朝社会の大人の欺瞞と取り換えることを拒否し、大人たちが齷齪とためこむ富すなわち「生活がじわじわともたらす腐敗」と闘った。)

「Perhaps the most important fact that underlies all the attitudes of these artists whom Charles valued so is their rejection of the Calvinist, Wesleyan insistence on original sin, the belief that the child is born intrinsically evil, and that evil must be exorcised by applying strict measures.」

(ルソーやブレイク、ワーズワースら、キャロルが重視した人々の態度の根底にあるのは、カルヴァン主義的・メソジスト的な原罪の強調や子どもは本質的に悪く生まれついており厳格な規則を課すことによって悪を取り除かなければならないという思い込みに対する拒絶である。)


「The *Alice* Books」

「They were often frightened by warnings and threats, their waking hours burdened with homilies. Much of the childeren's literature of Charles's day, the books he himself read as a boy, were purposeful and dour. They instilled discipline and compliance.」
「The *Alice* books fly in the face of that tradition, destroy it, and give the Victorian child something lighter and brighter. Above all, these books have no moral.」
「He was fed up with all the moral baggage that burdened children, that perhaps he himself had struggled with when a boy, and he was not purveying any more. Not only not purveying it - he went further and parodied the entire practice of adult moralizing.」


(子どもたちは警告や脅迫に怯え、訓戒に圧しつぶされていた。当時の子ども向け文学の多くは押しつけがましく陰気なもので、大人の言うことをきかなければひどい目にあうと教え込むためのものだった。
「アリス」物語はそうした伝統に真っ向から対立し、ぶちこわす。明るく軽やかで、なによりモラルが一切ない。
モラルの重荷にうんざりしていたキャロルは、モラルを廃棄するにとどまらず、大人のモラルを徹底的におちょくった。)

「Charles champions the child in the child's confrontation with the adult world, and in that, too, his book differs from most others. He treats children, both in his book and in real life, as equals.」
「The theme of survival echoes all through Charles's work, just as it is a major concern in his life. If the *Alice* books are symbols of his own struggle to survive, they are also formulae for every child's survival: they offer encouragement to push on, messages of hope in the wilderness of adult society.」


(大人の世界に立ち向かう子どもたちに加担している点で、キャロルの本は他の多くの本とは異なる。本の中でも実生活でも、彼は子どもを対等な存在として扱う。作品のテーマは一貫して「(子どものままで)生き残ること」であり、それはそのまま彼の人生における関心事である。「アリス」物語が作者自身の生き残りのための苦闘のしるしであるとすれば、それはすべての子どもにとっての生き残りのための処方箋でもあり、大人社会という荒地で挫けぬよう励ましと希望のメッセージを与えるのである。)


「The Pursuit of Innocents」より:

「Charles recognized earlier than one might suppose that his inner springs differed from most men's, that his heart beat to a different drum, that in order to be true to himself he would be compelled to lead a life that not only was outside the norm but would come under particular scrutiny and raise suspicions, one not generally condoned and subject to severe reprimand, sneers, lampoons, and ridicule. Be that as it may, he determined to follow his own star in spite of raised eyebrows and possible social censure. "Let them talk" was his answer; his own conscience would be his only judge.」

(キャロルは早くから己れの特異性に気づいていたし、自己に忠実であろうとすれば世間の常識から外れ、うさんくさい存在とみなされ石を投げられ罵られ嘲笑されるような生き方をせざるを得ないこともわかっていた。いずれにせよ、顰蹙されようがバッシングされようが、自分自身の星に従おうと決心したのだ。「言いたい奴には言わせておけばいい」、自分がよいと思うように生きるまでだ。)

「Perhaps Virginia Woolf was right in inferring that Charles's childhood was severed. Perhaps some single incident caused the rupture, or, more likely, perhaps the young man withdrew, slowly and silently, from the stern and rigid fortress and sought the more natural world that he described in his poem "Solitude," substituting an inner voice for external authority.」

(キャロルは若年のうちから、大人社会という非情で融通のきかない閉塞地からゆっくりと静かに退出し、外部の権威にではなく内面の声に従いつつ、より自然な「孤独」の世界を求めたのだ。)


「The Man」より、Lottie Rix の証言:

「He said that he had been talked to sometimes about himself; and that once when he was staying at Eastbourne he made friends with a little girl on the sands, and after he had known them a little time, asked her if she knew a little book called *Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.* She hadn't got it so he promised to give it to her. Her Mother said to him "Ah, have you heard about the author of the book? He's gone *mad*!" He said "Oh really, I had never heard it," and I think he added that he knew something about him. She stuck to it through and said "Oh yes, it was *quite* true," she could *assure* him. She had it from a friend at Lincoln who knew it for certain. . . "He had written 3 books . . . and now he had gone mad." Two or three days afterwards he sent the little girl the book and put in it, "For So and So/From the Author." Soon afterwards he met the girl's mother, and when she saw him, she threw up her hands and said "Oh Mr. Dodgson. . . I'll *never* say anything about anybody *to* anybody again!" To which he cheerfully replied "Oh yes Mrs. --- you will."」

(イーストボーンに滞在中、砂浜で小さい女の子と友だちになったキャロルが、『不思議の国のアリス』という本を知っているかとたずねると、持っていないということだったので、贈呈の約束をすると、その子の母親が「その本の著者は頭がおかしくなったんですって!」と言ったので「本当ですか、知らなかったな」と応じたが、母親は固執して、友人から聞いた確かな情報だと保証した。二三日後に、キャロルは女の子に「著者より」と署名した本を送った。その後まもなくその母親に会うと、「ドジソンさん、もう二度と誰かについて誰かに何かを言ったりしません」と謝罪したので、キャロルは「いやいや、奥様、おっしゃいますとも」と答えた。)


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