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Vivien Noakes 『Edward Lear: The Life of a Wanderer』 (Revised Edition)

「'Perhaps after all, the less one stays in places one likes the better - & so one escapes some pain,' he wrote in his diary. 'Therefore, wander.'」
(Vivien Noakes 『Edward Lear』 より)


Vivien Noakes 
『Edward Lear:
The Life of a Wanderer』 
Revised Edition



Sutton Publishing, Gloucestershire, 2004
viii, 312pp, 16pp of plates, 24x15.2cm, hardcover, dust jacket

Originally published in the United Kingdom in 1968 by William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd



1968年に初版が刊行されたヴィヴィアン・ノークスによるエドワード・リア伝の増訂版。
丸背紙装上製本、カバー。別丁図版(モノクロ)31点。カット(リアによる戯画)70点。
アマゾンマケプレで「非常に良い」が618円(+送料257円)で売られていたのを注文しておいたのが届いたのでよんでみました。



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Contents:

Preface

PART ONE: MR LEAR 1812-1848
1.Childhood
2. Ornithologist
3. The Knowsley Menagerie
4. Italy
5. A Queen and a Revolution
6. The Mediterranean
7. Franklin Lushington

PART TWO: SLOPES OF MYRTLE 1849-1869
8. Pre-Raphaelite
9. The Morbids
10. Corfu
11. The Holy Land
12. Rome
13. Landscape Painter
14. Wanderer
15. A Proposal of Marriage?
16. The Greatest Nonsense
17. Last Travel Book

PART THREE: SAN REMO 1869-1888
18. Villa Emily
19. Coast of Coromandel
20. The Cruel Shore
21. Villa Tennyson
22. The End

A Brief Chronological Table of Lear's Travels
Family Trees
Notes to the Text
Notes to Text Illustrations
Bibliography
Acknowledgements
Index




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◆本書より◆


「Childhood」より:

「When he was about seven, the emotional strain began to show itself in sudden changes of mood with bouts of acute depression, which he called 'the Morbids'. Significantly the first of these came after a rare happy evening with his father. 'The earliest of all the morbidnesses I can recollect must have been somewhere about 1819 - when my Father took me to a field near Highgate, where was a rural performance of gymnastric clowns &C. - & a band. The music was good, - at least it attracted me. - & the sunset & twilight I remember as if yesterday. And I can recollect crying half the night after all the small gaiety broke up - & also suffering for days at the memory of the past scene.' He was a sad, lonely little boy grasping happiness when it came and savouring every bit of it - and broken-hearted when it had slipped beyond his grasp again.
 But even earlier, when he was only five or six, had come the first attack of epilepsy - 'the Demon', as he called it.」
「The illness affected his whole life profoundly. He was fearful that one day an attack might leave him paralysed, or that the repeated assaults would destroy his mind: though he also hoped, until well into middle age, that the disease might loosen its grip as he grew older. It was a constant threat, for sometimes he had several attacks a day. He had warning before they came on - the aura epileptica - so that he was able to get out of the way, and apparently nobody apart from his family ever realised that he was an epileptic. But this perpetual secrecy forced him into isolation.」


(七歳頃から、情緒的ストレスは急性うつ病の症状を伴う突発的な気分の変化(リア自身はそれを「ビョーキ(the Morbids)」と呼んだ)として現れるようになった。最初に現れたのは父親と珍しく楽しい晩を過した後のことで、「1819年頃、父がハイゲイトの近くの野原に連れて行ってくれて、そこで道化師の曲芸とか楽隊とかが地方興行をしていた。音楽に心を魅かれた。夕日と黄昏を昨日のことのように覚えている。お祭り騒ぎが済んでしまうと、夜中まで泣いていた。数日間は過ぎてしまった情景を思い出して切なさに駆られた」。リアはたまに訪れる幸福に飛びついて味わい尽そうとし、それが通り過ぎてしまうと悲嘆に暮れる寂しく孤独な子どもだった。
しかしそれよりも早く、五歳か六歳で、リアは最初の癲癇の発作(リア自身はそれを「アクマ(the Demon)」と呼んだ)に襲われた。
病気がリアの人生に深い影響を及ぼした。いつか発作で頭がおかしくなってしまうか、麻痺状態になってしまうのではないかと恐れた。その一方で、年齢を経れば病状が軽くなるのではないかという希望を後年までずっと抱いていた。一日に数回の発作に見舞われることもあったので、つねに脅威にさらされていた。発作の前兆を感じると身を隠したので、家族以外は彼が癲癇持ちであることに気づかなかった。秘密を守らねばならないという気持がリアに孤立を強いることになった。)


「Italy」より:

「Indeed, as a young man he seems hardly to have considered marriage as a real possibility, partly because he knew that there would be too much risk of unhappiness. He would have to break the secret of his epilepsy, and he might pass the disease on to his children and see his own horror beginning again in another child. Nor could he be sure that his wife would go on loving him - his mother had stopped loving him once and he knew that he could not go through that kind of despair and hurt again. But the alternative - a solitary life of loneliness - held no appreal. 'I shall - if pleases God to give me health - most probably be a successful Landscape=painter - & have a number of friends given to but few in this world: - on the other hand, I am but too certain of living alone throughout life - a fate for which my sensitive mind ill enough prepares me.'」

(若きリアは自分が結婚することなど不可能だと考えていたようだ。結婚すればそれだけ不幸になるリスクを冒すことになる。ひた隠しにしてきた癲癇のことを知られることになるし、自分の子どもに癲癇が遺伝するかもしれない。それに結婚相手が自分を愛し続けてくれるかどうか分ったものではない。母親も自分を愛してくれなくなった。もうそんな絶望と悲痛には耐えられない。だが寂しい孤独な生活も厭だ。「神が健康を与えてくれるなら、僕は風景画家として成功するだろう。ごく僅かながら献身的な友人も得られるだろう。とはいえ結局のところ一生ひとりぼっちで生きることになりそうだ。それは心の折れやすい僕には対応できそうにない。)


「A Queen and a Revolution」より:

「For, despite their incongruity, there is in Lear's characters an honesty that is lacking in the improving literature of the time. Here are grown-ups doing things that grown-ups should never do. They rush and they fall, they eat and drink vastly, wear huge bonnets and wigs, play on crude instrumetns and dance hornpipes and jigs. They are immense and unmannerly, immoderate and strange, unabashed by their eccentricities and excess. ( . . . ) They do not deceive, but share with the children both the folly of their actions and the reality of the human characteristics they display - carelessness, generosity, stupidity, greed. Above all, they are their own masters, ignoring the blandishments of 'They', that constrained, critical mass whom Walter de la Mare called 'perhaps [Lear's] greatest triumph' with 'their unanimity, their cogency, their scorn'.
 Lear was not, of course, the only children's writer of the time who offered his readers an escape from a world of anxiety into one of safety and imagination - nor were all children subjected to these fears - but he was the most influential. In an age when they were too often loaded with shame, he sought to free them. By facing both the good and the bad without criticism, he gave them an opportunity of coming affectionately to terms with themselves and other people, encouraging a good-natured acceptance of oddities and blindness to obvious faults that Erasmus describes as 'the sort of absurdity which is the binding force in society and brings happiness to life'.」


(リアのリメリックの支離滅裂な登場人物たちには、しかし、同時代の文学には欠けている正直さがある。大人がするべきではないことをする大人たちが登場して、突っ走っては転倒し、暴飲暴食し、大きすぎる帽子やかつらを被って悦に入り、粗末な楽器を奏でてめまぐるしい踊りを踊る。法外で無暗矢鱈で滅法界で異様で、奇行や行き過ぎを恥じるそぶりも見せない。自分を偽ることなく、あからさまでまぎれもない個性と愚行を子どもたちの前にさらけだす。軽率さ、気前のよさ、愚かしさ、際限のなさ、何より彼らは自分がしたいことだけをして、ご立派な社会人たちの言うことなど歯牙にもかけない。
当時、不安に満ちた世界からの避難所となるべき想像の世界を子どもたちに与えた文学者はリアだけではなかったし、すべての子どもたちが不安におびえていたわけではなかったが、リアには子どもたちを引きつける力があった。体裁ばかり気にする時代にあって、リアは子どもたちの解放を求めた。善悪をあげつらわないことによって、子どもたちが自分自身や他者との親しい関係を取り戻す機会を与え、風変わりな行動を気さくに受け入れてエラスムスが「社会を束ねる力であり人生に幸いをもたらす愚行」と呼んだあからさまな欠陥を大目に見ることを奨励した。)


「Corfu」より:

「As it was, Lear probably only partly realised his homosexuality, though in the deeper layers of his mind there was conflict as he fought to suppress it, a conflict that contributed to his constant state of restlessness and depression. He was not a philandering homosexual, as some writers have believed him to be. His search was not for physical love but for someone who would want him as a person in the way that his parents had not wanted him as a child. Through his sensibility and charm he was sought after as a friend, and he loved to be with children because they liked him and showed it. But what he was searching for, and never found, was real spiritual involvement with another person.
 Beyond even this was the terrible unhappiness of forty years, the constant epileptic attacks that still came as often as twenty times a month, marked in his diary by sad little crosses and that he now had to accept would never go - and the bewildering memories of his childhood. Usually he could tuck these away into an undisturbed corner of his mind where they were gradually covered by comforting layers of dust, but when a new unhappiness found its way into that corner the dust was suddenly shaken off and the monster of memory was there.
 Today we would say that Lear was on the verge of a nervous breakdown. What he knew was that he was so unhappy he could do nothing. For hours he walked up and down his room with tears streaming down his face. If he tried to sleep, he just lay looking up at the ceiling. Nobody called, nothing happened, and day after day it rained.」


(深層意識における葛藤やそれに起因する恒常的な情緒不安定やうつ状態はあったものの、リアはみずからの同性愛的傾向をはっきりとは認識していなかったようだ。リアの同性愛は肉体的なものではなく、両親に望まれなかった子どもであったことへの補償として自分を望んでくれる人を求めたのであり、友人は多く子どもたちからも好かれたリアが希求しつつも得ることができなかったのは、他者との真に精神的な関わりであった。
その上に月に二十回ものてんかんの発作(リアの日記には小さな×印で記録されている)が四十年も続き治る見込みがないというひどい不幸があり、さらに子ども時代のトラウマ的記憶の数々は心の隅に追いやったつもりでも新しい不幸が起るたびに古いトラウマが呼び起されてしまうのであった。
今のわれわれから見ればリアは神経衰弱すれすれの状態にあったといえるが、リア自身に分っていたのは自分はあまりにも不幸なので何もできない状態にあるということで、滂沱の涙を流しつつ何時間も部屋の中を行ったり来たりし、横になっても眠るに眠れず天井を眺め、誰も来ず、何も起こらず、ただ雨ばかりが降り続くのであった。)


「Landscape Painter」より:

「'Perhaps after all, the less one stays in places one likes the better - & so one escapes some pain,' he wrote in his diary. 'Therefore, wander.'」

(リアの日記によると「結局のところ、その土地に滞在することが短ければ短いだけその土地は好ましいものになり、苦痛も少なくなる。だからこそ人はあてどなくさすらうのだろう」)

「'The Elements,' he wrote in his diary, 'trees, clouds, &c - silence . . . seems to have far more part with me or I with them, than mankind.'」

(リアの日記によると「木々や、雲や、その他のさまざまな自然物、そして沈黙……のほうが僕にとって人類なんかよりはるかに共通するものが多い。」)


「The End」より:

「Though Lear had been dependent on his friends in many ways, his whole life had been a lonely struggle against difficulties that he could share with nobody.」

(友人たちに頼ることも多かったとはいえ、リアの全生涯は誰とも共有できない困りごととの孤独なたたかいであった。)



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noakes - edward lear 03


不幸な鳥たち(unfortunate birds)に餌やりをするリア。





こちらもご参照ください:

Becks-Malorny 『James Ensor 1860-1949: Masks, Death, and the Sea』
M. Watkinson & P. Anderson 『Crazy Diamond: Syd Barrett & the Dawn of Pink Floyd』
Norton N. Cohen 『Lewis Carroll: A Biography』

































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